Demonstratives / Los demostrativos


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1. Definitions
2. Demonstrative adjectives
3. Demonstrative pronouns










  1. Definition


Demonstratives refer to someone or something, indicating the distance from the speaker. 



2. Demonstrative adjectives

They accompany a noun and agree in gender and number with it.


     

Singular
Plural

Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Close to the speaker
este
esta
estos
estas
Close to the listener
ese
esa
esos
esas
Away from both of them
aquel
aquella
aquellos
aquellas



Esta casa es preciosa.                             This house is beautiful.

Me quedo con este libro.                         I’ll take this book.

¿Ves a esa niña?                                      Can you see that girl?

Me gustan esas libretas.                          I like those notebooks.

Coge aquel paraguas.

Take that umbrella (over there).

Mete aquellos juguetes en esta caja.        Put those toys in this box.

¿Comes esta manzana o esa pera?          
        
What are you eating, this apple or that pear?



3. Demonstrative pronouns


They are used instead of a noun and agree in gender and number with it.




Singular
Plural

Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Masculine
Feminine
Close to the speaker
este
esta
esto
estos
estas
Close to the listener
ese
esa
eso
esos
esas
Away from both of them
aquel
aquella
aquello
aquellos
aquellas



Voy a comer esta.                          I am eating this (one).

Coge aquel.                                    Take that (one).

¿Cuál te gusta más, este o ese?    

Which one do you prefer, this one or that one?



There are singular neuter pronouns for things, usually referring to something in a general sense:


¿Qué es esto?                                  What is this?

No me gusta eso.                            I don’t like that.

¡Aquello fue tan raro!                     That was so strange!





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